Distribution of Caesalpiniaceae:
It is commonly called cassia family. The sub-family contains 135 genera which are cosmopolitan in distribution. In India it is represented by 110 species and more than 21 genera.
Economic Importance of Caesalpiniaceae:
- Food: The flower buds of Bauhinia variegata (H. Kachnar) are used as vegetable. The fruits of Tamarindus indica (H. Imli) are spicy and used as condiment. The seeds of Tamarindus indica yield starch.
The pulp of the pods of Cassia fistula (H. Amaltas) is utilised as a purgative. The bark-decoction of Saraca indica (H. Ashoka) is used as a remedy for menstrual disorders.
- Fiber: The bark of Bauhinia vahlli yields fibers which are used in rope making.
- Dye: The wood of Haematoxylon campechianum yields a dye called haematoxylin. This is an anatomical stain.
- Tanning: The pods of Caesalpinia coriaria, C. sappan and C. digyna are used in tanning leather.
- Ornamentals: Delonix regia (syn. Poinciana regia) H – Gulmohar, Bauhinia sp., Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Colvillea racemosa, Parkinsonia aculeata, Saraca indica etc., are grown in gardens and along the road side. Delonix and Saraca are liked for their deep shade giving quality.